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A group of army officers led by Gamal Abdel Nasser overthrew the monarchy in 1952.

A union with Syria to form the United Arab Republic (1958–61) failed.

Held by the Umayyad and Abbāsid dynasties, in 969 it became the centre of the Fātimid dynasty.

The Pyramids date from the Old Kingdom, the cult of Osiris and the refinement of sculpture from the Middle Kingdom, and the era of empire and the Exodus of the Jews from the New Kingdom.

An Assyrian invasion occurred in the 7th century BC, and the Persian Achaemenids established a dynasty in 525 BC.

* * * Egypt Introduction Egypt Background: Nominally independent from the UK in 1922, Egypt acquired full sovereignty following World War II.

The completion of the Aswan High Dam in 1971 and the resultant Lake Nasser have altered the time-honored place of the Nile river in the agriculture and ecology of Egypt.

Geography Egypt - Location: Northern Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Libya and the Gaza Strip Geographic coordinates: 27 00 N, 30 00 E Map references: Africa Area: total: 1,001,450 sq km land: 995,450 sq km water: 6,000 sq km Area - comparative: slightly more than three times the size of New Mexico Land boundaries: total: 2,665 km border countries: Gaza Strip 11 km, Israel 266 km, Libya 1,115 km, Sudan 1,273 km Coastline: 2,450 km Maritime claims: contiguous zone: 24 NM territorial sea: 12 NM continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation exclusive economic zone: 200 NM Climate: desert; hot, dry summers with moderate winters Terrain: vast desert plateau interrupted by Nile valley and delta Elevation extremes: lowest point: Qattara Depression - 133 m highest point: Mount Catherine 2,629 m Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, phosphates, manganese, limestone, gypsum, talc, asbestos, lead, zinc Land use: arable land: 2.85% permanent crops: 0.47% other: 96.68% (1998 est.) Irrigated land: 33,000 sq km (1998 est.) Natural hazards: periodic droughts; frequent earthquakes, flash floods, landslides; hot, driving windstorm called khamsin occurs in spring; dust storms, sandstorms Environment - current issues: agricultural land being lost to urbanization and windblown sands; increasing soil salination below Aswan High Dam; desertification; oil pollution threatening coral reefs, beaches, and marine habitats; other water pollution from agricultural pesticides, raw sewage, and industrial effluents; very limited natural fresh water resources away from the Nile which is the only perennial water source; rapid growth in population overstraining the Nile and natural resources Environment - international party to: Biodiversity, Climate agreements: Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands signed, but not ratified: Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol Geography - note: controls Sinai Peninsula, only land bridge between Africa and remainder of Eastern Hemisphere; controls Suez Canal, shortest sea link between Indian Ocean and Mediterranean Sea; size, and juxtaposition to Israel, establish its major role in Middle Eastern geopolitics; dependence on upstream neighbors; dominance of Nile basin issues; prone to influxes of refugees People Egypt Population: 70,712,345 (July 2002 est.) Age structure: 0-14 years: 33.96% (male 12,292,185; female 11,721,469) 15-64 years: 62.18% (male 22,190,637; female 21,775,504) 65 years and over: 3.86% (male 1,191,091; female 1,541,459) (2002 est.) Population growth rate: 1.66% (2002 est.) Birth rate: 24.41 births/1,000 population (2002 est.) Death rate: 7.58 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.) Net migration rate: -0.24 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.) Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.77 male(s)/ female total population: 1.02 male(s)/ female (2002 est.) Infant mortality rate: 58.6 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.) Life expectancy at birth: total population: 64.05 years female: 66.24 years (2002 est.) male: 61.96 years Total fertility rate: 2.99 children born/woman (2002 est.) HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.02% (1999 est.) HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/ NA AIDS: HIV/AIDS - deaths: NA Nationality: noun: Egyptian(s) adjective: Egyptian Ethnic groups: Eastern Hamitic stock (Egyptians, Bedouins, and Berbers) 99%, Greek, Nubian, Armenian, other European (primarily Italian and French) 1% Religions: Muslim (mostly Sunni) 94%, Coptic Christian and other 6% Languages: Arabic (official), English and French widely understood by educated classes Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write total population: 51.4% male: 63.6% female: 38.8% (1995 est.) Government Egypt Country name: conventional long form: Arab Republic of Egypt conventional short form: Egypt local short form: Misr former: United Arab Republic (with Syria) local long form: Jumhuriyat Misr al- Arabiyah Government type: republic Capital: Cairo Administrative divisions: 26 governorates (muhafazat, singular - muhafazah); Ad Daqahliyah, Al Bahr al Ahmar, Al Buhayrah, Al Fayyum, Al Gharbiyah, Al Iskandariyah, Al Isma'iliyah, Al Jizah, Al Minufiyah, Al Minya, Al Qahirah, Al Qalyubiyah, Al Wadi al Jadid, Ash Sharqiyah, As Suways, Aswan, Asyut, Bani Suwayf, Bur Sa'id, Dumyat, Janub Sina', Kafr ash Shaykh, Matruh, Qina, Shamal Sina', Suhaj Independence: 28 February 1922 (from UK) National holiday: Revolution Day, 23 July (1952) Constitution: 11 September 1971 Legal system: based on English common law, Islamic law, and Napoleonic codes; judicial review by Supreme Court and Council of State (oversees validity of administrative decisions); accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal and compulsory Executive branch: chief of state: President Mohammed Hosni MUBARAK (since 14 October 1981) head of government: Prime Minister Atef Mohammed ABEID (since 5 October 1999) cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president elections: president nominated by the People's Assembly for a six-year term, the nomination must then be validated by a national, popular referendum; national referendum last held 26 September 1999 (next to be held NA October 2005); prime minister appointed by the president election results: national referendum validated President MUBARAK's nomination by the People's Assembly to a fourth term Legislative branch: bicameral system consists of the People's Assembly or Majlis al-Sha'b (454 seats; 444 elected by popular vote, 10 appointed by the president; members serve five-year terms) and the Advisory Council or Majlis al- Shura - which functions only in a consultative role (264 seats; 176 elected by popular vote, 88 appointed by the president; members serve NA-year terms) elections: People's Assembly - three-phase voting - last held 19 October, 29 October, 8 November 2000 (next to be held NA November 2005); Advisory Council - last held 7 June 1995 (next to be held NA) election results: People's Assembly - percent of vote by party - NDP 88%, independents 8%, opposition 4%; seats by party - NDP 398, NWP 7, Tagammu 6, Nasserists 2, LSP 1, independents 38, undecided 2; Advisory Council - percent of vote by party - NDP 99%, independents 1%; seats by party - NA Judicial branch: Supreme Constitutional Court Political parties and leaders: Nasserist Arab Democratic Party or Nasserists [Dia' al-din DAWUD]; National Democratic Party or NDP [President Mohammed Hosni MUBARAK] - governing party; National Progressive Unionist Grouping or Tagammu [Khalid MUHI AL-DIN]; New Wafd Party or NWP [No'man GOMA]; Socialist Liberal Party or LSP [leader NA] note: formation of political parties must be approved by the government Political pressure groups and despite a constitutional ban against leaders: religious-based parties, the technically illegal Muslim Brotherhood constitutes MUBARAK's potentially most significant political opposition; MUBARAK tolerated limited political activity by the Brotherhood for his first two terms, but moved more aggressively since then to block its influence; civic society groups are sanctioned, but constrained in practical terms; trade unions and professional associations are officially sanctioned International organization ABEDA, ACC, ACCT, Af DB, AFESD, AL, participation: AMF, BSEC (observer), CAEU, CCC, EBRD, ECA, ESCWA, FAO, G-15, G-19, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MINURSO, MONUC, NAM, OAPEC, OAS (observer), OAU, OIC, OSCE (partner), PCA, UN, UNAMSIL, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNITAR, UNMIBH, UNMIK, UNMOP, UNOMIG, UNRWA, UNTAET, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTo O, WTr O Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador M.

Nabil FAHMY chancery: 3521 International Court NW, Washington, DC 20008 consulate(s) general: Chicago, Houston, New York, and San Francisco FAX: [1] (202) 244-4319 telephone: [1] (202) 895-5440 Diplomatic representation from the chief of mission: Ambassador C. 2001) embassy: 5 Latin America St., Garden City, Cairo mailing address: Unit 64900, APO AE 09839-4900 telephone: [20] (2) 797-3300 FAX: [20] (2) 797-3200 Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and black with the national emblem (a shield superimposed on a golden eagle facing the hoist side above a scroll bearing the name of the country in Arabic) centered in the white band; similar to the flag of Yemen, which has a plain white band; also similar to the flag of Syria, which has two green stars, and to the flag of Iraq, which has three green stars (plus an Arabic inscription) in a horizontal line centered in the white band Economy Egypt - Economy - overview: Egypt improved its macroeconomic performance throughout most of the last decade by following IMF advice on fiscal, monetary, and structural reform policies.

The report also rejected the proposed restrictions on television satellite channels by license regulation.

The independent Egyptian Organization for Human Rights accused the government of having manipulated incidents of violence to legalize the perpetuation of the state of emergency and documented in its annual report 226 cases of torture and 93 deaths in police custody in the previous seven years.

Following three wars with Israel (see Arab-Israeli wars), Egypt, under Nasser's successor, Anwar el-Sādāt, made peace with the Jewish state, thus alienating many fellow Arab countries.

Sādāt was assassinated by Islamic extremists in 1981 and was succeeded by Hosnī Mubārak, who continued to negotiate peace.

It is one of the world's oldest continuous civilizations.

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