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Pendulum clocks must be stationary to operate; any motion or accelerations will affect the motion of the pendulum, causing inaccuracies, so other mechanisms must be used in portable timepieces.The pendulum clock was invented in 1656 by Dutch scientist and inventor Christiaan Huygens, and patented the following year.

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That same year William Sessions, Jr., left Sessions to become a founding member of The New England Clock Company.

Following a workers’ strike in 1968, Sessions was sold to United Metal Goods Company, and the Connecticut office was done.

Throughout the 18th and 19th centuries pendulum clocks in homes, factories, offices and railroad stations served as primary time standards for scheduling daily life, work shifts, and public transportation, and their greater accuracy allowed the faster pace of life which was necessary for the Industrial Revolution.

The home pendulum clock was replaced by cheaper synchronous electric clocks in the 1930s and '40s, and they are now kept mostly for their decorative and antique value.

Not surprisingly, these clocks were never very popular during the conservative , although they are highly sought after by collectors today.

In 1958 Sessions was sold to Consolidated Electronics Industries Corporation, a New York-based company, though production in Connecticut continued.Observation that pendulum clocks slowed down in summer brought the realization that thermal expansion and contraction of the pendulum rod with changes in temperature was a source of error.This was solved by the invention of temperature-compensated pendulums; the mercury pendulum by George Graham in 1721 and the gridiron pendulum by John Harrison in 1726.These early clocks, due to their verge escapements, had wide pendulum swings of 80–100°.In his 1673 analysis of pendulums, Horologium Oscillatorium, Huygens showed that wide swings made the pendulum inaccurate, causing its period, and thus the rate of the clock, to vary with unavoidable variations in the driving force provided by the movement.The Great Depression caused Sessions to cease production of spring-wound clocks altogether in 1936, and, during World War II, the Sessions plant devoted itself to the manufacture of war materials.

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