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One of these was a series of buoys, each containing thermometers located ten feet above the water and at one foot below the water.

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* This graph is called the “hockey stick graph” because the curve looks like a hockey stick laid on its side (click on the footnote for a graphic illustration).[92] The red part of the curve represents modern instrument-measured surface temperatures, the blue represents proxy data, the black line is a smoothed average of the proxy data, and the gray represents the margin of error with 95% confidence.[93] [94] * This graph has been the subject of disputes in scientific journals,[100] [101] congressional hearings,[102] [103] and legal proceedings including a Freedom of Information Act lawsuit.[104] [105] Just Facts presently does not have the resources to conclusively assess all the competing claims on this issue, but the facts we have verified are as follows: medieval warmth,” and shows the following graph of temperature changes for the Northern Hemisphere over the past 1,300 years.

This graph, which is called a “spaghetti graph,” is constructed with data from 12 proxy studies spliced with instrument-measured surface temperatures (the dark black line): * The fifth IPCC report (2013) states that challenges persist in reconstructing temperatures before the time of the instrumental record “due to limitations of spatial sampling, uncertainties in individual proxy records and challenges associated with the statistical methods used to calibrate and integrate multi-proxy information.” This report contains the following spaghetti graphs of proxy studies spliced with instrument-measured surface temperatures (the black lines): * In 2009, an unknown individual(s) released more than 1,000 emails (many dealing with proxy studies) from the University of East Anglia’s Climatic Research Unit (CRU).

The following map shows these productivity changes, with green signifying higher vegetation productivity and red lower: Plants need water, light, warmth, nutrition and CO2 to grow.

By increasing the CO2 level in the greenhouse atmosphere (typical to 600 ppm instead of normal 400 ppm value), the growth for some plants can be stimulated in an important way, with often yield increases up to 20%, especially for tomato, cucumber, strawberry, etc.

He informed the * In 2013, “Forecast the Facts”—a “grassroots human rights organization dedicated to ensuring that Americans hear the truth about climate change”—published the following graphic purporting to show a recent photo of the North Pole: * After publishing an article documenting the facts above, Just Facts contacted Forecast the Facts to offer an opportunity to respond.[191] As of January 2016, Forecast the Facts has not replied or issued a correction.[192] [193] * The natural variability of Earth’s climate is such that a glacier formerly existed on Hawaii,[196] and glaciers once covered almost all of Canada, New England, and the northern central United States: * In addition to carbon dioxide emissions from the use of fossil fuels, other factors that have been implicated by scientists as primary causes of modern climate change include but are not limited to: * A central debate among scientists about man-made greenhouse gases involves how much natural processes reduce or amplify the effects of these gases.

Positive feedbacks amplify the effects, and negative feedbacks diminish them.[209] * The climate models included in the 2007 IPCC report are programmed with positive feedbacks for water vapor that more than double the warming effect of CO2.[210] This is based upon the fact that warmer air evaporates more water, thus creating more water vapor, which is a greenhouse gas.[211] [212] states that the feedbacks used in climate models are based upon “methods that …The materials were authored by some of the world’s leading climate scientists and accompanied by the following note: We feel that climate science is too important to be kept under wraps.We hereby release a random selection of correspondence, code, and “an increase in the average temperature of the Earth’s atmosphere,” either by “human industry and agriculture” or by natural causes like the Earth has “experienced numerous” times “through its history.”[1] * Some writers use the phrases “global warming” and “climate change” to mean temperature changes strictly caused by human activity.[2] [3] [4] Other writers use adjectives such as “man-made” and “anthropogenic” to distinguish between human and non-human causes.[5] [6] (“Anthropogenic” means “of human origin,”[7] and “AGW” stands for “anthropogenic global warming.”[8]) * Just Facts’ Standards of Credibility require the use of “language that is precise and unambiguous.” Hence, when human causes are stated or implied, this research uses terms like “man-made” and “human-induced.” * The greenhouse effect is a warming effect caused by certain gases that retain heat from sunlight.[9] Without such gases, the average surface temperature of the Earth would be below freezing, and as explained by the , “life, as we know it, would not exist.”[10] The global warming debate is centered upon whether added greenhouse gases released by human activity will overheat the Earth and cause harmful effects.[11] * Human activities currently release about 37 billion metric tons of CO2 per year, which equates to about 5% of natural CO2 emissions.Natural processes absorb the equivalent of all natural emissions plus about 57% of man-made emissions, leaving an additional 16 billion metric tons of CO2 in the atmosphere each year.[36] † In permafrost regions, perennial snow accumulations trap air bubbles that leave records of past airborne CO2 concentrations,[38] [39] [40] and because regional CO2 concentrations vary by less than 10 parts per million over the Earth, these local records are globally representative.[41] [42] * Instruments located on satellites can measure certain properties of oxygen that vary with temperature.Locking onto local records, no matter how beautiful, can lead to serious errors.[148] found that since 1979, Antarctica has been growing colder in the summer and fall seasons but warmer in the winter and spring seasons, except for 50% of East Antarctica, which has also been cooling in the winter.[152] published a story by Andrew Revkin entitled: “Scientists Report Severe Retreat of Arctic Ice.” The last paragraph of the story reads: “Sea ice around Antarctica has seen unusual winter expansions recently, and this week is near a record high.”[154] * In 2000, James J.

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