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Before British colonial rule in the 20th century, the Igbo were a politically fragmented group, with a number of centralized chiefdoms such as Nri, Arochukwu, Agbor and Onitsha.Unaffected by the Islamic jihad sweeping Nigeria in the 19th century, they became overwhelmingly Christian under colonization.The Nri people of Igbo land have a creation myth which is one of the many creation myths that exist in various parts of Igbo land.

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With us, they do no more work than other members of the community,… (except that they were not permitted to eat with those… Contrary to common belief, European slave traders were fairly well informed about various African ethnicities, leading to slavers' targeting certain ethnic groups which plantation owners preferred.

free-born;) and there was scarce any other difference between them,… Particular desired ethnic groups consequently became fairly concentrated in certain parts of the Americas.

Traditional Igbo political organization was based on a quasi-democratic republican system of government.

In tight knit communities, this system guaranteed its citizens equality, as opposed to a feudalist system with a king ruling over subjects.

"Red Ibo" (or "red eboe") describes a black person with fair or "yellowish" skin.

This term had originated from the reported prevalence of these skin tones among the Igbo but eastern Nigerian influences may not be strictly Igbo.

The Igbo homeland straddles the lower Niger River, east and south of the Edoid and Idomoid groups, and west of the Ibibioid (Cross River) cluster.

In rural Nigeria, Igbo people work mostly as craftsmen, farmers and traders. The Igbos are also highly urbanized, with some of the largest metropolitan areas, cities and towns in Igboland being Onitsha, Enugu, Aba, Owerri, Orlu, Okigwe, Asaba, Awka, Nsukka, Nnewi, Umuahia, Abakaliki, Afikpo, Agbor and Arochukwu.

Due to the incompatibility of the Igbo decentralized style of government and the centralized system including the appointment of warrant chiefs required for British indirect rule, British colonial rule was marked with open conflicts and much tension.

Under British colonial rule, the diversity within each of Nigeria's major ethnic groups slowly decreased and distinctions between the Igbo and other large ethnic groups, such as the Hausa and the Yoruba, became sharper.

This way of governing was immensely different from most other communities of Western Africa, and only shared by the Ewe of Ghana.

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