Right hemisphere brain damage impairs strategy updating

We hypothesized that this difficulty could be due to the failure of right brain damage patients to develop well-matched models of the world.

Our motivation is the idea that to navigate uncertainty, humans use models of the world to direct the decisions they make when interacting with their environment.

Payzan-Le Nestour E, Bossaerts P (2011) Risk, unexpected uncertainty, and estimation uncertainty: Bayesian learning in unstable settings. Prokasy (Eds.), Classical conditioning II: Current theory and research. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sc 362 (1481) 933–942.

PLo S Comput Biol 7 (1) e1001048 doi:10.1371/1001048. doi: 10.1098/rstb.2007.2098St?ttinger E, Filipowicz A, Danckert J, Anderson B (2014) The Effects of Success, Confidence, and Strategies on the Updating of Mental Models: Evidence from Playing ‘Rock, Paper, Scissors’. Gl?scher J, Daw N, Dayan P, O'Doherty JP (2010) States versus rewards: Dissociable neural prediction error signals underlying model-based and model-free reinforcement learning.

Spatial neglect is frequently associated with attention, and the failure of patients to orient or respond to contralesional stimuli ( Halligan, Fink, Marshall, & Vallar, 2003; Heilman & Valenstein, 1979 ) is often characterized as a spatial attentional failure.

However, neglect is also associated with deficits that are not obviously spatial, for example working memory impairments ( Danckert & Ferber, 2006 ), increased attentional blink duration ( Husain, Shapiro, Martin, & Kennard, 1997 ) and impaired temporal estimation ( Danckert et al., 2007; Merrifield, Hurwitz, & Danckert, 2010 ).

Jensen S, Boley D, Gini M, Schrater P (2005) Rapid on-line temporal sequence prediction by an adaptive agent.

In: Proceedings of the 4th International Joint Conference on Autonomous Agents and Multiagent Systems (pp. Rescorla RA, Wagner AR (1972) A theory of pavlovian conditioning: Variations in the effectiveness of reinforcement and nonreinforcement.

People are not only capable of learning about the spatial layout of their surroundings, but they can also piece together novel routes and new spatial relations through inference.

Yet, this field has traditionally been hampered by confounding variables, such as cost and the potential for previous exposure to an experimental environment.

Layout is potentially the first method of navigation that people learn to utilize; its workings reflect our most basic understandings of the world.

Hermer and Spelke (1994) determined that when toddlers begin to walk, around eighteen months, they navigate by their sense of the world's layout.

The better the model is, the better their decisions are.

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